MS, Medical College of Virginia at
Citation Marwitz, J. (2000).
The Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory. The Center
for Outcome Measurement in Brain Injury. http://www.tbims.org/
combi/nfi ( accessed
NFI was developed as a clinical and research tool to quantify a
variety of postinjury behaviors and symptoms characteristic of neurologic
disability and encountered in daily life. The Inventory is comprised
of 76 items organized into six factor analytically derived scales:
Depression, Somatic, Memory/Attention, Communication, Aggression,
and Motor plus an additional six "critical items." The critical
items identify areas which may require urgent intervention (e.g.,
seizures, blackout spells). Separate patient and family forms are
provided to collect the unique perspectives offered by both the
injured individual and a second party observer. Normative scales
are provided based upon patient age and injury severity. The inventory
was standardized on persons aged 16 and older. The NFI has been
translated into a variety of languages including Spanish, Swedish,
French, German, and Italian.
are asked to rate items as occurring "never", "rarely", "sometimes",
"often", or "always." Typically, questionnaires can be completed
in 10-15 minutes. The inventory can be mailed in advance of appointments.
Completion rates for mailed questionnaires have been relatively
good. Omitted responses can readily be clarified with a simple phone
call or in person, during the patient's next visit.
scores for each scale are summed and converted into t-scores and
percentiles based on patient's age and injury severity. Response
patterns can be examined by plotting scores on a profile sheet.
The relative severity of problems is indicated by t-score and percentile
values as well as comparisons between individual scale scores. The
comparability of different people's perceptions (e.g., patient vs.
spouse) is ascertained by comparing respondent's scale scores. Change
is examined by comparing scale scores from the same respondent over
clinical settings the NFI has proven useful for:
areas of least and greatest concern
clinical reports and case summaries
change as a function of treatment or natural recovery
can also provide information relevant to competency concerns in
the areas of medication management, driving, employment, education,
and financial management. The measure can also help address concerns
relating to home safety, judgement in dangerous situations, interpersonal
difficulties, and inappropriate behavior.